How to See Yourself As You Really Are – Dalai Lama – Reviewing the Meditative Reflections

Part 1. The Need for Insight

1. Laying The Ground For Insight to Grow

1. All counterproductive emotions are based on and depend upon ignorance of the true nature of persons and things.
2. There are specific ways to suppress lust and hatred temporarily; but if we undermine the ignorance that misconceives the nature of ourselves, others, and all things, all destructive emotions are undermined.
3. Ignorance sees phenomena-which actually do not exist in and of themselves-as existing independent of thought

2. Discovering The Source of Problems
Consider:
1. Does the attractiveness of an object seem to be integral to it?
2. Does the attractiveness of an object obscure its faults and disadvantages?
3. Does exaggeration of the pleasantness of certain objects lead to lust?
4. Does exaggeration of the unpleasantness of certain objects lead to hatred?
5. Notice how you:
• First perceive an object
• Then notice if the object is good or bad
• Then conclude that the object has its own independent basis for existing
• Then conclude that the object’s goodness or badness exists inherently in the object
• Then generate lust or hatred according to your previous judgment.

3. Why Understanding The Truth is Needed

Consider this:
1. Ignorance leads to exaggerating the importance of beauty. ugliness, and other qualities.
2. Exaggeration of these qualities leads to lust, hatred, jealousy, belligerence, and so on.
3. These destructive emotions lead to actions contaminated by misperception.
4. These actions (karma) lead to powerless birth and rebirth in cyclic existence and repeated entanglement in trouble.
5. Removing ignorance undermines our exaggeration of positive and negative qualities; this undercuts lust, hatred, jealousy; belligerence, and so on, putting an end to actions contaminated by misperception, thereby ceasing powerless birth and rebirth in cyclic existence.
6. Insight is the way out.

Part II. How to Undermine Ignorance

4. Feeling The Impact of Interrelatedness

1. Bring to mind an impermanent phenomenon, such as a house.
2. Consider its coming into being in dependence upon specific causes: lumber, carpenters, and so forth.
3. See if this dependence conflicts with the phenomenon’s appearance of existing in its own right.
Then:
1. Bring to mind an impermanent phenomenon, such as a book.
2. Consider its coming into being in dependence upon its parts-its pages and cover.
3. See if its dependence upon its parts conflicts with its appearing as if it exists in its own right.

Then:
1. Consider consciousness paying attention to a blue vase.
2. Reflect on its coming into being in dependence upon its parts-the several moments that constitute its continuum.
3. See if its dependence upon its parts conflicts with its appearing as if it exists in its own right.

Then:
1. Consider space in general.
2. Reflect on its coming into being in dependence upon its parts-north, south, east, and west.
3. See if its dependence upon its parts conflicts with its appearing as if it exists in its own right.
Also:
1. Consider the space of a cup.
2. Reflect on its coming into being in dependence upon its parts-the top half and the bottom half of the cup.
3. See if its dependence upon its parts conflicts with its appearing as if it exists in its own right.

5. Appreciating The Reasoning of Dependent-Arising

Consider:
1. Dependent and independent are a dichotomy. Anything that exists is either the one or the other.
2. When something is dependent, it must be empty of being under its own power.
3. Nowhere in the parts of the body and mind that form the basis for the “I” can we find the “I”. Therefore, the “I” is established not under its own power but through the force of other conditions-its causes, its parts, and thought.

6. Seeing The Interdependence of Phenonmenon

Consider:
1. Inherent existence never did, never does, and never will exist.
2. However, we imagine that it does exist and thereby are drawn into distressing emotions.
3. The belief that phenomena inherently exist is an extreme of exaggeration. a frightful chasm.
4. The belief that impermanent phenomena cannot perform functions, or act as cause and effect. is an extreme form of denial, another frightful chasm.
5. The realization that all phenomena are empty of inherent existence because of being dependent-arisings avoids both extremes. Realizing that phenomena are dependent-arisings avoids the extreme of dangerous denial; realizing that they are empty of inherent existence avoids the extreme of dangerous exaggeration.

7. Valuing Dependent-Arising and Emptiness

Consider:
1. Because persons and things are dependent-arisings they are empty of inherent existence. Being dependent, they are not self-instituting.
2. Because persons and things are empty of inherent existence, they must be dependent-arisings. If phenomena did exist in their own right, they could not depend on other factors: either causes. their own parts, or thought. Since phenomena are not able to set themselves up, they can transform.
3. These two realizations should work together, the one furthering the other.

Part III. Harnessing the Power of Concentration and Insight

8. Focussing Your Mind

1. Look carefully at an image of Buddha, or some other religious figure or symbol, noticing its form, color, and details.
2. Work at causing this image to appear internally to your consciousness, imagining it on the same level as your eyebrows, about five or six feet in front of you, about one to four inches high (smaller is better), and shining brightly.
3. Consider the image to be real, endowed with magnificent qualities of body, speech, and mind.

9. Tuning Your Mind For Meditation

1. Place your mind on the object of meditation.
2. Using introspection, from time to time check to see whether your mind remains on the object.
3. When you find that it has strayed, recall the object and put your mind back on it as often as needed.

Then:
1. To counter laxity, which is a too-loose way of perceiving the meditative object:
• First try to tighten just a little your way of holding the object.
• If that does not work, brighten or elevate the object or pay closer attention to its details.
• If that does not work, leave the intended object and temporarily think about a joyous topic, such as the marvelous qualities of love and compassion or the wonderful opportunity that a human lifetime affords for spiritual practice.
• If that does not work, leave off meditating and go to a high place or one where there is a vast view:

2. To counter excitement, which is a too-tight way of perceiving the meditative object:
• First try to loosen just a little your way of imagining the object.
• If that does not work, lower the object in your mind and imagine it as heavier.
• If that does not work, leave the intended object and temporarily think about a topic that makes you more sober, such as how ignorance brings about the sufferings of cyclic existence, or the imminence of death, or the disadvantages of the object to which you have strayed and the disadvantages of distraction itself.

Part IV. How to End Self Deception

10. Meditating On Yourself First

Consider:
1. The person is at the center of all troubles.
2. Therefore, it is best to work at understanding your true nature first.
3. After that, this realization can be applied to mind, body, house, car, money, and all other phenomena.

11. Realising That You Do Not Exist in And of Yourself

1. Imagine that someone else criticizes you for something you actually have not done, pointing a finger at you and saying, “You ruined such-and-such.”
2. Watch your reaction. How does the “I” appear to your mind?
3. In what way are you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itself, selfinstituting, established by way of its own character.

Also:
1. Remember a time when you were fed up with your mind. such as when you failed to remember something.
2. Review your feelings. How did the “I” appear to your mind at that time?
3. In what way were you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itsel£ selfinstituting, established by way of its own character.

Also:
1. Remember a time when you were fed up with your body or with some feature of your body such as your hair.
2. Look at your feelings. How did the “I” appear to your mind at that time?
3. In what way were you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itself self-instituting, established by way of its own character.

Also:
1. Remember a time when you did something awful and you thought, “I really made a mess of things.”
2. Consider your feelings. How did the “I” appear to your mind at that time?
3. In what way were you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itself, self-instituting. established byway of its own character.

Also:
1. Remember a time when you did something wonderful and you took great pride in it.
2. Examine your feelings. How did the “I” appear to your mind at that time?
3. In what way were you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itself, self-instituting. established by way of its own character.

Also:
1. Remember a time when something wonderful happened to you and you took great pleasure in it.
2. Watch your feelings. How did the “I” appear to your mind at that time?
3. In what way were you apprehending it?
4. Notice how that “I” seems to stand by itself, self-instituting. established by way of its own character.

12. Determining The Choices

1. Analyze whether the “I” that is inherently self-established in the context of the mind-body complex could have a way of existing other than being part of or separate from mind and body.
2. Take other phenomena, such as a cup and a table, or a house and a mountain, as examples. See that there is no third category of existence. They are either the same or different.
3. Decide that if the “I” inherently exists as it seems to, it must be either one with or separate from mind and body.

13. Analyzing Oneness

Consider the consequences if the “I” is established in and of itself in accordance with how it appears to our minds and if it also is the same as mind-body:

1. “I” and mind-body would have to be utterly and in all ways one.
2. In that case, asserting an “I” would be pointless.
3. It would be impossible’ to think of “my body” or “my head” or “my mind.”
4. When mind and body no longer exist, the self also would not exist.
5. Since mind and body are plural, one person’s selves also would be plural.
6. Since the “I” is just one, mind and body also would be one.
7. Just as mind and body are produced and disintegrate, so it would have to be asserted that the “I” is inherently produced and inherently disintegrates. In this case, neither the pleasurable effects of virtuous actions nor the painful effects of nonvirtuous actions would bear fruit for us, or we would be experiencing the effects of actions we ourselves did not commit.

14. Analyzing Difference

Consider the consequences if the “I” is established in and of itself in accordance with how it appears to our minds and if it also is inherently different from mind-body:

1. “I” and mind-body would have to be completely separate.
2. In that case, the “I” would have to be findable after clearing away mind and body.
3. The “I” would not have the characteristics of production, abiding. and disintegration, which is absurd.
4. The “I” would absurdly have to be just a figment of the imagination or permanent.
5. Absurdly, the “I” would not have any physical or mental characteristics.

15. Coming To A Conclusion

Repeatedly review the four steps to realization:

1. Zero in on the target, the appearance of the “I” as if it is established in and of itself
2. Determine that if the “I” exists the way it seems to, it must be either one with mind and body or separate from mind and body.
3. Thoroughly contemplate the problems with “I” and the mind-body complex being the same.
• “I” and mind-body would have to be utterly and in all ways one.
• Asserting an “I” would be pointless.
• It would be impossible to think of “my body” or “my head” or “my mind.”
• When mind and body no longer exist, the self also would not exist.
• Since mind and body are plural, a person’s selves also would be plural.
• Since the “I” is just one, mind and body also would be one.
• Just as mind and body are produced and disintegrate, the “I” is inherently produced and inherently disintegrates. In this case, neither the pleasurable effects of virtuous actions nor the painful effects of nonvirtuous actions would bear fruit for us, or we would be experiencing the effects of actions we ourselves did not commit.

4. Thoroughly contemplate the problems with “I” and the mind-body complex being inherently different.
• “I” and mind-body would have to be completely separate.
• In that case, the “I” would have to be findable after clearing away mind and body.
• The “I” would not have the characteristics of production, abiding, and disintegration, which is absurd.
• The “I” would absurdly have to be just a figment of the imagination or permanent.
• Absurdly; the “I” would not have any physical or mental characteristics.

16. Testing Your Realization

1. Go through the four steps of analysis described in Chapter 15.
2. When the sense that the “I” is self-instituting falls apart and vanishes in a void, switch to considering your arm, for instance.
3. See whether the sense that your arm inherently exists immediately vanishes due to the previous reasoning.
4. If the previous analysis does not immediately apply to your arm, your understanding is still on a coarser level.

17. Extending This Insight To What You Own

1. Internal phenomena, such as your mind and your body; belong to you and therefore are “yours.”
2. External belongings, such as your clothing or car, also are “yours.”
3. If the “I” does not inherently exist, what is “yours” could not possibly inherently exist.

18. Balancing Calm And Insight

For the time being, alternate a little stabilizing meditation with a little analytical meditation in order both to taste the process and to strengthen your current meditation.

1. First focus your mind on a single object, such as a Buddha image or your breath.
2. Use analytical meditation as described in the four steps for meditating on the nature of the “I” (see Chapter 15).
3. When you develop a little insight, stay with that in sight in stabilizing meditation, appreciating its impact.
4. Then, when feeling diminishes a little, return to analytical meditation to reinstate feeling and develop more insight.

Part V. How Persons and Things Actually Exist

19. Viewing Yourself As Like An Illusion

1. Remember a time when you mistook a reflection of a person in a mirror for an actual person.
2. It appeared to be a person but was not.
3. Similarly; all persons and things seem to exist from their own side without depending on causes and conditions, on their parts, and on thought, but they do not.
4. In this way, persons and things are like illusions.

Then:
1. As you did earlier, bring the target of your reasoning. the inherently established “I,” to mind-by remembering or imagining an instance when you strongly believed in it. .
2. Notice the ignorance that superimposes inherent existence, and identify it.
3. Put particular emphasis on contemplating the fact that if such inherent establishment exists, the “I” and the mind-body complex would have to be either the same or different.
4. Then forcefully contemplate the absurdity of assertions of the self and mind-body as either the same or different, seeing and feeling the impossibility of those assertions:

ONENESS
• “I” and mind-body would have to be utterly and in all ways one.
• In that case, asserting an “I” would be pointless.
• It would be impossible to think of “my body” or “my head” or “my mind.”
• When mind and body no longer exist, the self also would not exist.
• Since mind and body are plural, a person’s selves also would be plural.
• Since the “I” is just one, mind and body also would be one.
• Just as mind and body are produced and disintegrate, so it would have to be asserted that the “I” is inherently produced and inherently disintegrates. In this case, neither the pleasurable effects of virtuous actions nor the painful effects of nonvirtuous actions would bear fruit for us, or we would be experiencing the effects of actions we ourselves did not commit.

DIFFERENCE

•”I” and mind-body would have to be completely separate.
•In that case, the “I” would have to be findable after clearing away mind and body.
• The “I” would not have the characteristics of production, abiding. and disintegration, which is absurd.
• The “I” would absurdly have to be just a figment of the imagination or permanent.
• Absurdly; the “I” would not have any physical or mental characteristics.

5. Not finding such an “I,” firmly decide, “Neither I nor any person is inherently established.”
6. Remain for a while, absorbing the meaning of emptiness, concentrating on the absence of inherent establishment.
7. Then, once again let the appearances of people dawn to your mind.
8. Reflect on the fact that, within the context of dependent-arising. people also engage in actions and thus accumulate karma and experience the effects of those actions.
9. Ascertain the fact that the appearance of people is effective and feasible within the absence of inherent existence.
10. When effectiveness and emptiness seem to be contradictory, use the example of a mirror image:
• The image of a face is undeniably produced in dependence on a face and a mirror, even though it is empty of the eyes, ears, and so forth it appears to have, and the image of a face undeniably disappears when either face or mirror is absent.
• Similarly; although a person does not have even a speck of inherent establishment, it is not contradictory for a person to perform actions, accumulate karma, experience effects, and be born in dependence on karma and destructive emotions.
11. Try to view the lack of contradiction between effectiveness and emptiness with respect to all people and things.

20. Noticing How Everything Depends on Thought

1. Revisit a time when you were filled with hatred or desire.
2. Does it not seem that the hated or desired person or thing is extremely substantial, very concrete?
3. Since this is the case, there is no way you can claim that you already see phenomena as dependent on thought.
4. You see them as existing in their own right.
5. Remember that you need frequent meditation on emptiness to counter the false appearance of phenomena.

Then Consider:

1. The “I” is set up in dependence upon mind and body.
2. However, mind and body are not the “I”, nor is the “I” mind and body.
3. Therefore, the “I” depends on conceptual thought, set up by the mind.
4. The fact that the “I” depends on thought implies that the “I” does not exist in and of itself
5. Now notice that you have a better sense of what it means for something to exist in and of itself the inherent existence that realization of emptiness is aimed at refuting.

Part VI. Deepening Love with Insight

21. Feeling Empathy

Apply these six similarities to yourself to understand the nature of your suffering and develop a strong intention to transcend this dynamic.

1. Just as a bucket in a well is bound by a rope, so I am constrained by counterproductive emotions and actions driven by them.
2. Just as the movement of a bucket up and down the well is run by an operator, so the process of my cyclic existence is run by my untamed mind, specifically through mistakenly believing that I inherently exist, and that “mine” inherently exists.
3. Just as a bucket travels up and down the well over and over, so I ceaselessly wander in the great well of cyclic existence, from the uppermost states of temporary happiness to the lowest states of temporary pain.
4. Just as it takes great exertion to draw the bucket up but it descends easily; so I have to expend great effort to draw myself upward to a happier life but easily descend to painful situations.
5. Just as a bucket does not determine its own movements, so the factors involved in shaping my life are the results of past ignorance, attachment, and grasping; in the present, these same factors are continually creating more problems for my future lives, like waves in the ocean.
6. Just as a bucket bumps against the walls of the well when it ascends and descends, so I am battered day by day by the suffering of pain and change, and by being caught in processes beyond my control.
7. Therefore, from the depths of my heart I should seek to get out of this cyclic round of suffering.

Then:
Bring a friend to mind and think with feeling:

1. Just as a bucket in a well is bound by a rope, so this person is constrained by counterproductive emotions and actions driven by them.
2. Just as the movement of a bucket up and down the well is run by an operator, so the process of this person’s cyclic existence is run by his or her untamed mind, specifically through mistakenly believing that he or she inherently exists, and that “mine” inherently exists.
3. Just as the bucket travels up and down the well over and over, so this person ceaselessly wanders in the great well of cyclic existence, from the uppermost states of temporary happiness to the lowest states of temporary pain.
4. Just as it takes great exertion to draw the bucket up but it descends easily, so this person has to expend great effort to rise upward to a happier life but easily descends to painful situations.
5. Just as a bucket does not determine its own movements, so the factors involved in shaping this person’s life are the results of past ignorance, attachment, and grasping; in the present, these same factors are continually creating more problems for his or her future lives, like waves in the ocean.
6. Just as a bucket bumps against the walls of the well when it ascends and descends, so this person is battered day by day by the suffering of pain and change and by being caught in processes beyond his or her control.

Now cultivate three levels of love:
1. This person wants happiness but is bereft. How nice it would be if she or he could be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness! ,
2. This person wants happiness but is bereft. May she or he be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!
3. This person wants happiness but is bereft. I will do whatever I can to help her or him to be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!

Now cultivate three levels of compassion:
1. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering. yet is stricken with terrible pain. If this person could only be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
2. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering. yet is stricken with terrible pain. May this person be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
3. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering. yet is stricken with terrible pain. I will help this person be free from suffering and all the causes of suffering!

Now cultivate total commitment:
1. Cyclic existence is a process driven by ignorance.
2. Therefore, it is realistic for me to work to achieve enlightenment and to help others do the same.
3. Even if I have to do it alone, I will free all sentient beings from suffering and the causes of suffering. and set all sentient beings in happiness and its causes. One by one, bring to mind individual beings- friends, then neutral persons, and then enemies, starting with the least offensive-and repeat these reflections with them.

22. Reflecting On Impermanence

Take this to heart:
1. It is certain that I will die. Death cannot be avoided. My life span is running out and cannot be extended
2. When I will die is indefinite. Life spans among humans vary; The causes of death are many and causes of life comparatively few. The body is fragile.
3. At death nothing will help except my transformed attitude. Friends will be of no help. My wealth will be no use, and neither will my body.
4. We are all in this same perilous situation, so there is no point in quarreling and fighting or wasting all our mental and physical energy on accumulating money and property.
5. I should practice now to reduce my attachment passing fancies.
6. From the depths of my heart I should seek to get beyond this cycle of suffering induced by misconceiving the impermanent to be permanent.

Then consider:
1. My mind, body, possessions, and life are impermanent simply because they are produced by causes and conditions.
2. The very same causes that produce my mind, body, possessions, and life also make them disintegrate moment by moment.
3. The fact that things have a nature of impermanence indicates that they are not under their own power; they function under outside influence.
4. By mistaking what disintegrates moment by moment for something constant, I bring pain upon myself as well as others.
5. From the depths of my- heart I should seek to get beyond this round of suffering induced by mistaking the impermanence for permanence.

Then:

Bring a friend to mind and consider the following with feeling:
1. This person’s mind, body, possessions, and life are impermanent because they are produced by causes and conditions.
2. The very same causes that produce this person’s mind, body, possessions, and life also make them disintegrate moment by moment.
3. The fact that things have a nature of impermanence indicates that they are not under their own power; they function under outside influence.
4. By mistaking what disintegrates moment by moment for something constant, this friend brings pain upon himself or.herself as well as others.

Now cultivate three levels of love:
1. This person wants happiness but is bereft. How nice it would be if she or he could be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!
2. This person wants happiness but is bereft. May she or he be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!
3. This person wants happiness but is bereft. I will do whatever I can to help her or him to be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!

Now cultivate three levels of compassion:
1. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering, yet is stricken with terrible pain. If this person could only be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
2. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering, yet is stricken with terrible pain. May this person be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
3. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering, yet is stricken with terrible pain. I will help this person be free from suffering and all the causes of suffering!

Now cultivate total commitment:
1. Cyclic existence is a process driven by ignorance.
2. Therefore, it is realistic for me to work to achieve enlightenment and to help others do the same.
3. Even if I have to do it alone, I will free all sentient beings from suffering and the causes of suffering, and set all sentient beings in happiness and its causes. One by one, bring to mind individual beings-first friends, then neutral persons, and then enemies, starting with the least offensive-and repeat these reflections with them.

23. Absorbing Yourself In Ultimate Love

1. As you did earlier, bring the target of your reasoning, the inherently established “I,” to mind by remembering or imagining an instance when you strongly believed in it.
2. Notice the ignorance that superimposes inherent existence, and identify it.
3. Put particular emphasis on contemplating the fact that if such inherent establishment exists, the “I” and the mind-body complex would have to be either the same or different.
4. Then forcefully contemplate the absurdity of assertions of the self and mind-body as either the same or different, seeing and feeling the impossibility of those assertions:

ONENESS

• “I” and mind-body would have to be utterly and in all ways one.
• In that case, asserting an “I” would be pointless.
• It would be impossible to think. of “my body,” or “my head,” or “my mind.”
• When mind and body no longer exist, the self also would not exist.
• Since mind and body are plural, a person’s selves also would be plural.
• Since the “I” is just one, mind and body also would be one.
• Just as mind and body are produced and disintegrate, so it would have to be asserted that the “I” is inherently produced and inherently disintegrates. In this case, neither the pleasurable effects of virtuous actions nor the painful effects of nonvirtuous actions would bear fruit for us, or we would be experiencing the effects of actions we ourselves did not commit.

DIFFERENCE

• “I” and mind-body would have to be completely separate.
• In that case, the “I” would have to be findable after clearing away mind and body.
• The “I” would not have the characteristics of production, abiding, and disintegration, which is absurd.
• The “I” would absurdly have to be just a figment of the imagination or permanent.
• Absurdly, the “I” would not have any physical or mental characteristics.

5. Not finding such an “I.” firmly decide, “Neither I nor any person is inherently established.”
6. Resolve: From the depths of my heart I should seek to get beyond this round of suffering brought on myself by misconceiving what does not inherently exist as inherently existing.

Then:
Bring a friend to mind and, while remembering the process of self-ruinous cyclic existence, consider the following:
1. Like me, this person is lost in an ocean of misapprehension of “I” as inherently existent, fed by a huge river of ignorance mistaking mind and body to be inherently existent, and agitated by winds of counterproductive thoughts and actions.
2. Like someone mistaking a reflection of the moon in water for the moon itself, this person mistakes the appearance of “I” and other phenomena to mean they exist in their own right.
3. By accepting this false appearance, this person is powerlessly drawn into lust and hatred, accumulating karma and being born over and over again in a round of pain.
4. Through this process this person unnecessarily brings pain upon himself or herself as well as others.

Now cultivate three levels of love:

1. This person wants happiness but is bereft. How nice it would be if she or he could be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!
2. This person wants happiness but is bereft. May she or he be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!
3. This person wants happiness but is bereft. I will do whatever I can to help her or him to be imbued with happiness and all the causes of happiness!

Now cultivate three levels of compassion:
1. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering, yet is stricken with terrible pain. If this person could only be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
2. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering. yet is stricken with terrible pain. May this per’ son be free from suffering and the causes of suffering!
3. This person wants happiness and does not want suffering. yet is stricken with terrible pain. I will help this person be free from suffering and all the causes of suffering!

Now cultivate total commitment:

1. Cyclic existence is a process driven by ignorance.
2. Therefore, it is realistic for me to work to achieve enlightenment and to help others do the same.
3. Even if I have to do it alone, I will free all sentient beings from suffering and the causes of suffering. and set all sentient beings in happiness and its causes. One by one, bring to mind individual sentient beings first mends, then neutral persons, and then enemies, starting with the least offe.nsive-and repeat these reflections with them.

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